• A very black topsoil, rich in humus, typical of cool to temperate semiarid regions such as the grasslands of Ukraine and southern Russia.
  • The local name of a black earth of extraordinary fertility, covering at least 100,000,000 acres, from the Carpathian to the Ural mountains, to the depth of from 4 to 20 feet, and yielding an almost unlimited succession of similar crops without preparation.
  • A <xref>fertile</xref> black <xref>soil</xref> containing a very high percentage of <xref>humus</xref> (3% to 15%) and high percentages of <xref>phosphoric acids</xref>, <xref>phosphorus</xref> and <xref>ammonia</xref>.
powered by