- An individual's striving for spiritual self-perfection.
- A Muslim holy war or spiritual struggle for the propagation or defense of Islam.
- A campaign against perceived foes, especially such a campaign regarded as fanatical or immoderate.
- A general religious war of Mussulmans against Christians or other unbelievers in Islam, inculcated in the Koran and Traditions as a duty.
- A religious war against infidels or Mohammedan heretics; also, any bitter war or crusade for a principle or belief.
- A <xref>holy war</xref> undertaken by <xref>Muslims</xref>.
- An aggressive <xref>campaign</xref> for an idea.
- a <xref>personal</xref> <xref>spiritual</xref> <xref>struggle</xref> for <xref>self-improvement</xref> and against <xref>evil</xref>
- a holy struggle or striving by a Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal
- a holy war waged by Muslims against infidels