- The boastful pretensions or knavish practice of a quack, particularly in medicine; empiricism; charlatanry; humbug.
- The acts, arts, or boastful pretensions of a quack; false pretensions to any art; empiricism.
- The practice of <xref>fraudulent</xref> medicine, usually in order to make money or for ego gratification and power; health fraud.
- An instance of practicing fraudulent medicine.
- the dishonesty of a charlatan
- medical practice and advice based on observation and experience in ignorance of scientific findings